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DADSR stands for “Delay, Attack, Decay, Sustain, Release,” which is an extended type of envelope generator that offers an additional “Delay” stage compared to the standard ADSR envelope. DADSR envelope generators are used to control or modulate various parameters of a synthesizer, such as amplitude, filter cutoff, or modulation depth, over time to create dynamic and evolving sounds.

Here is a breakdown of each stage in a DADSR envelope:

  1. Delay: The Delay stage determines the amount of time before the envelope starts to act upon receiving a Gate signal (note on). During this stage, the output of the envelope generator remains at its minimum value (usually 0V).
  2. Attack: The Attack stage defines the time it takes for the envelope to rise from its minimum value to its maximum value (usually +5V or +10V) after the Delay stage. A shorter attack time results in a faster, more immediate response, while a longer attack time creates a slower, more gradual increase in the controlled parameter.
  3. Decay: The Decay stage specifies the time it takes for the envelope to fall from its maximum value to the level set by the Sustain stage. Shorter decay times create a sharper, more percussive response, while longer decay times result in a slower, more gradual decrease in the controlled parameter.
  4. Sustain: The Sustain stage represents a steady level at which the envelope will hold as long as the Gate signal remains high (note held). The Sustain stage does not have a time parameter; instead, it sets a voltage level that determines the sustained value of the controlled parameter.
  5. Release: The Release stage determines the time it takes for the envelope to fall back to its minimum value after the Gate signal goes low (note off). Shorter release times create a faster, more abrupt ending to the note, while longer release times result in a slower, more gradual fade-out of the controlled parameter.

DADSR envelope generators offer additional flexibility and control over the shape of the envelope by introducing a delay before the envelope starts, which can be useful for creating more complex or expressive modulation effects in a modular system.